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were among the arly settlers. (■>64 E.\sT Eir.HTEENTii Street, Brooklyn. January 26, 191S.] ABSTRACTS AND REVIEWS. 163 Abstracts and Reviews. FOOD CHEMISTRY IN THE SERVICE OF HUMAN NUTRITION.* By Henry C. Sherman, B. S., Sc.D., A. M., Ph. D., New York, Professor of Food Chemistry, Columbia University. The lecturer began by saying that it was his pur- pose to speak of the application of food chemistry to the problems of human nutrition, especially with reference to the economic phases of the present situation and to consider how best to secure ade- quacy of nutrition along with economy of food. Economy of food at the present meant both the wisest expenditure of money and the conservation of the country's food resources in such a way that we would be Viagra Online Next Day Delivery able to send abroad to Viagra Online Next Day Delivery our Allies and our army the greatest amount of foods suited to their needs and fitted for transportation. By way of introduction it was pointed out that an adequate diet should meet five requisites: i. It should con- tain digestible organic nutrients sufficient for the caloric needs. 2. It should supply a sufficiency of suitable proteins. 3. The inorganic constituents, or ash, should be present in adequate amounts. 4. There should be an abundance of the vitamines. 5. Finally, the Viagra Online Next Day Delivery physical character of the diet should be such as to insure its proper handling by the digestive tract. The recent rapid progress in the knowledge of nutrition had tended to complicate our conceptions of nutritive requirements, but, at the same time, it had made the problem clearer since probably all of necessary food constituents had now been recog- nized and could be dealt with, even though the chemical nature of some of them was not yet com- pletely known. The recent researches on nutrition, which were largely the products of American work- ers, had now given us a fairly accurate knowledge of the total nutritive energy requirements of man under Viagra Online Next Day Delivery varying conditions of rest and work. While this was certainly true of Viagra Online Next Day Delivery the total energy require- ments, our knowledge of the requirements of some of the individual nutritive materials was not yet so Viagra Online Next Day Delivery accurate. The protein requirement was one of those which had not yet been sufficiently determined and in the establishment of which many factors demanded con- sideration. Thus the low protein requirement of forty-four to fifty-three grams a day for a seventy kilogram man, as determined by Chittenden, Viagra Online Next Day Delivery had been criticised by Meltzer and by Benedict. Melt- zer contended that the usual high protein consump- tion provided a factor of safety which was wanting in the low protein diets. According to Benedict, the utilization of other foodstufifs was also better in the presence of a high protein intake than in a low one. This might possibly be explained in part at least by the fact that hydrolytic enzymes were either proteins Viagra Online Next Day Delivery or contained proteins as essential constituents. In addition the need for a considera- ble variety in the aminoacids derived to varying degrees from dififerent proteins seemed to point to the need of a greater protein consumption than "Summary of a lecture delivered before the Harvev Society at the Academy of Medicine. New York. January 12, igi's. the minimum requirement. On the other hand the maintenance of a nitrogen balance on a low protein diet would seem to indicate that the diet met all of the protein requirements, and it seemed unlikely that such a diet was seriously deficient either in kind or amount of protein. The author's analysis of eighty-six observations on normal, healthy adults, made in twenty independent investigations showed a wide Viagra Online Next Day Delivery range of apparent protein requirement, but the average figure fell within those determined by Chittenden. While the feeding of isolated single proteins to growing animals brought out the nutri- tive deficiency of many of them it should be remem- bered that an adecjuate supply of each aminoacid was essential for growth whereas in the full grown adult tissues any native aminoacids might be ex- pected to contribute to the maintenance of nitrogen equilibrium. Finally, the use of diets made up of the usual staple articles might be assumed to provide a sufficient variety of the necessary protein con- stituents. In this connection it had been shown that potato and wheat nitrogen were highly efficient in maintaining nitrogen balance in adults. The protein sparing action of the fats and carbo- hydrates, the lecturer said, was a matter which de- served consideration here. It should be borne in mind that protein metabolism was essentially a series of reversible reactions which maintained an ap- proximate equilibrium in the body. In the adult the tissues always contained protein and amino- acids in approximate equililrium and the supply of aminoacids was constantly being augmented by the digestion products, while simultaneously the supply was constantly being reduced by deaminization. Where the supply was greater than the destruction the rate of protein catabolism was of necessity checked. The intake of ammonia salts also might check the process of deaminization and aid the maintenance of nitrogen equilibrium. Ammonia might also contribute to the formation of amino- acids, which fact served to explain the protein sparing action of the carbohydrates. Thus alanine was one of the protein aminoacids which could be derived from protein, or from carbohydrates or